## Calendar

There is a proposed calendar on the syllabus, but here I will record what we actually get through in class.

• 9/28: Exam 1
• 9/21: Rings, Ideals, and Quotients
• 9/14 – Tonight, after the quiz, we reviewed some linear algebra. In particular we discussed Linear Transformations$T:V\rightarrow W\ with\ T(a\vec{v}_1+b\vec{v}_2)=aT(\vec{v}_1)+bT(\vec{v}_2),$ Null Spaces$N=\{\vec{v}\in V | T(\vec{v})=\vec{0}_W,\}\subseteq V$ and Column Spaces $T(V)=\{T(\vec{v})|\vec{v}\in T\}\subseteq W.$ We also pointed out that the dimension of the null space plus the dimension of the column space is always equal to the number of columns of the matrix of the transformation and, finally, we can define an equivalence relation on the domain $$T$$ using the null space which respects the arithmetic in $$T$$. We looked at all of this so that when we went back to rings we could recognize that we are studying analogous structures that behave in the same way. Ring homomorphisms $\phi:R\rightarrow S\ with\ \phi(a+b)=\phi(a)+\phi(b)\ and\ \phi(ab)=\phi(a)\phi(b),$ Kernels$K=\{r\in R | \phi(r)=0_S,\}\subseteq R$ and Images $\phi(R)=\{\phi(r)|r\in R\}\subseteq S.$ We ended by pointing out that the kernel is a special type of subring called an ideal. We will pick up the discussion there next week.
• 9/7 – Tonight we had a quiz on equivalence relations and discussed relations a little more in terms of the quiz questions and the packet from last week. Then we looked at sections 1,2,4,5,7, and 8 in the Algebraic Structures Overview packet. You should review this and play around with sections 3 and 6 ahead of the quiz next week.
• 8/31 – Today we went over the syllabus and then worked through section 2 and part of section 3 of the Exploring Equivalence Relations packet. Please finish section 3 to make sure that you don’t have any questions. You may complete section 4 for extra assignment credit; it is due by the end of September.

## Unit 1: Algebraic Structures

### Assignment Due 9/28/2023:

All assignment submissions must be typed and in complete sentences. Proper submission formatting may count for up to 10% of the assignment grade. You need to do four problems total (3 concept and 1 theory), no two problems may be from the same section.

#### Concept Questions:

• Sec. 2 :24,26
• Sec. 22: 34
• Sec. 23: 22, 24
• Sec. 30: 8, 12

#### Theory Questions:

• Sec. 2: 38, 42
• Sec. 22: 48, 50
• Sec. 23: 32, 36
• Sec. 30: 18, 32

### Test Preparation Materials for Exam on 9/21/2023:

#### Definitions:

Equivalence Relation and Class, Modular Equivalence, Relatively Prime, Functions, One-to-One, Onto, Group, Ring, Integral Domain, Field, Subring, Ideal, Characteristic, Zero Divisor, Unit, Homomorphisms, Kernels. Quotient Structures

#### Theorems:

• Theorem 2.18: Identity and Inverse Elements are unique.
• Corollary 23.5-ish: $$\mathbb{Z}_p$$ is a Field if and only if $$p$$ is prime.
• Theorem 23.11: Every finite integral domain is a field.
• Theorem 30.11: Properties of Homomorphisms.
• Theorem 30.14: A homomorphism $$\phi$$ is 1-1 if and only if $$ker_\phi=\{0\}$$.
• Theorem 30.15: For a homomorphism $$\phi$$, $$ker_\phi$$ is an ideal.

#### Practice Problems:

For each exam look at the odd numbered Computation questions, the correct the definition Concept questions, the True/False Concept questions, and, when they are there, the Proof Synopsis questions.

## Unit 2: Groups, Properties, Homomorphisms

### Assignment Due 11/2/2023:

All assignment submissions must be typed and in complete sentences. Proper submission formatting may count for up to 10% of the assignment grade. You need to do four problems total (3 concept and 1 theory), no two problems may be from the same section.

#### Concept Questions:

• Sec. 2: 24
• Sec. 4: 28
• Sec. 5: 40
• Sec. 6: 46
• Sec. 7: 20
• Sec. 8: 30, 32
• Sec. 10: 22, 26
• Sec. 12: 22

#### Theory Questions:

• Sec. 4: 36
• Sec. 5: 56
• Sec. 6: 56, 66
• Sec. 7: 22
• Sec. 8: 38
• Sec. 10: 36
• Sec. 12: 32, 36

### Test Preparation Materials for Exam on 10/26/2023:

#### Definitions:

Abelian Group, Non-Abelian Group, Dihedral Group, Permutation Group (or Symmetric Group), Cyclic Group, Subgroup, Cycles, Permutations, Even and Odd Permutations, Homomorphism, Isomorphism, Aut(G), Inn(G), Coset, Normal Subgroup, Factor Group(or Quotient Group), Order of a Group, Order of an Element, Center of a Group, Centralizer of an Element, Generator(s), Normalizer, Index of a Subgroup

#### Theorems:

• Subgroup Tests
• Cayley’s Theorem
• Lagrange’s Theorem
• First Isomorphism Theorem

#### Practice Problems:

For each exam look at the odd numbered Computation questions, the correct the definition Concept questions, the True/False Concept questions, and, when they are there, the Proof Synopsis questions.

## Unit 3: Advanced Topics in Group Theory

### Assignment Due 12/15/2023:

All assignment submissions must be typed and in complete sentences. Proper submission formatting may count for up to 10% of the assignment grade. You need to do four problems total (3 concept and 1 theory), no two problems may be from the same section.

#### Concept Questions:

• Sec. 9: 34, 38 (see example 9.13)
• Sec. 13: 22, 26, 28
• Sec. 14: 14, 18

#### Theory Questions:

• Sec. 16: 8, 10
• Sec. 17: 24
• Sec. 19: 16

### Test Preparation Materials for Exam on 12/14/2023:

#### Definitions:

Isomorphism, Aut(G), Inn(G), Homomorphism, Kernel, Conjugacy Class, p-Group, Sylow p-Subgroup, Generators, Relation, Equivalence Classes

#### Theorems:

• Isomorphism Theorems
• Lagrange’s Theorem
• Cauchy’s Theorem for Abelian Groups
• Classification of Groups of order $$p^2$$
• Cauchy’s Theorem
• Sylow’s Theorems

#### Practice Problems:

For each exam look at the odd numbered Computation questions, the correct the definition Concept questions, the True/False Concept questions, and, when they are there, the Proof Synopsis questions.

## Typesetting Out-of-Class Work (Template)

1. Create an account at Overleaf.com using your WCSU email account
2. Watch the introductory video here VIDEO LINK, the document created in the video is here: https://www.overleaf.com/read/khbktbvvvkjd
If you are having problems typing up a document and would like feedback you can share a link to it by following the directions here: https://www.overleaf.com/learn/how-to/Sharing_a_project; send me the link to view but not edit. Here is a quick reference sheet with symbols and such: Quick Reference. Finally, here is a playlist of video lessons on $$\LaTeX$$: Technical Typesetting with $$LaTeX$$ Playlist